” The word ‘intelligence” conveys different meanings to different psychologists.
They interpret it in their own way. Some psychologists consider intelligence as a general ability, whereas others take it as a special ability to tackle different types of problems.
However, different the opinions of different schools of thought may be, they all seem to agree on one comprehensive definition.
“Intelligence means an innate ability to solve problems.” As the words imply, innate ability means that ability which is present in a person from birth and not learnt through self-study or in a classroom. Hence: Intelligence means an inborn mental efficiency or capacity to react fa vo ur ably or. find solutions to, problems of an unfamiliar and novel nature.
2. Intelligence & General Test:
The main difference between intelligence tests and general or traditional types of tests is that the former type is a measure of one’s intelligence or inborn ca pa city to solve problems. whereas the latter is a test of one’s acquired knowledge.
(b) Traditional or general types of tests may be short but admit of lengthy answers of a subjective nature, whereas intelligence tests may be lengthy but admit of short answers.
These are of objective type. One may be required to tick the correct answer out of a few suggested alternative answers, or merely give the serial number of the correct choice out of a few suggested choices.
(c) Intelligence Tests have to be answered at a very fast speed. There is a very short time at the disposal of the examinee. Normally, a question is to be solved in a few seconds.
3. Use of Intelligence-Tests:
Intelligent men are needed to hold important and key jobs in any department, governmental or private. All employers look for intelligent men when selecting suitable persons to perform different types of jobs. And the best method of selecting the right man for the right job is to employ intelligence tests. These tests are preferred over traditional tests which are tests of memory or tests of classroom instruction. Intelligence tests were first used for the purpose of selection Of personnel in Western countries and they have now become quite popular in our country. Our Government first introduce d Intelligence Tests for selecting personnel for our Anne Forces and now their use is being extended to other departments and professions including Civil Services.
SOLVING VERBAL INTELLIGENCE TESTS:
In this chapter, a few common types of intelligence tests generally given in the various selection tests, especially o f the Civil Services are illustrated.
Relationship or Analogy Test:
In this type, a certain relationship exists between the pairs of words. We have to find out such pairs.
Examples: Write the serial numbers of words which have the same relationships as exists between hard work and success. ‘
(a) Examination (b) Failure, (c) Study, (d) Laziness (e)Play (f) Copying
Completion of Series Tests:
In this type, a number of digits or letters of the alphabet are given and they follow a certain order or pattern. You have to observe carefully this order and find out the required letter of figure missing in between or at the end of the series.
At the end of each series, a few choices are given as alternative answers and the. candidate.is required to write out the serial number of the correct choice.
Examples: Which of the following choice provide the last two missing figures in the series given below?
BOOT is FOOT as GLOVE is to__________________ .
(a) Cloth (b) Hand (c) Wood (d) Protect.
0 ,3 ,7 ,1 2 ,1 8 ,2 5 _____ .
(a) 35 (b) 33 (c) 34 (d) 40 (e) 42
(2) 9, 16,.25, 36.______
(a) 46 (b) 84 (c) 49 (d) 64 (e)62
Spotting out the Stranger or the Same Class Test:
In this type of test, a number of words or subjects belong to the same class or species except one or two which belong to a different class. These-exceptions are like • strangers in a homogenous group. The candidate is required to pick out these dissimilar or stranger words or subjects from the rest of the group. The comparative judgment of the candidates is put to test in this exercise,